The impact of anxiety on professional performance
The modern era of social development is characterized by several important features. It is an unprecedented rate of development of science and production, having the character of scientific and technological revolution, increasing role of man in this process, as the main productive force of society, more and more high requirements made to the workers, to their professional and personal qualities.
High dynamism of everyday life and activity of a modern person, intensification of social ties and people's communication, the need to make responsible decisions under uncertainty and time deficit, increasing demands to the competence and efficiency of a person are connected, in their turn, with a growth of psychological tension, which all kinds of disasters, natural calamities, wars, terrorism generate. Society is at the mercy of anxiety, penetrating people's homes, hearts and lives.
The problem of mental states is of great importance in human science. Successful development of this problem is necessary because mental states largely determine the nature of human activity. Anxiety as a state in domestic and foreign literature has been studied primarily in terms of the development of self-regulation skills in athletes (C. Elixon, W. Morgan, Yu.V. Pakhomov). Anxiety as a state and as a trait that occurs in the process of adapting to the environment and in the performance of various activities has been studied. Y. Khanin.
In some works, anxiety is seen as a reaction to social influence under certain individual psychophysical properties (G. Eysenck, B. Viatkin, C. Spielberger, N. Mahoney), as well as a condition that can arise during various psychosomatic illnesses (E. Sokolov).
What is anxiety, how it is manifested in individuals, what consequences for the society can have a chronic state of anxiety in its inhabitants?
Basic theoretical approaches to the study of neuropsychic strains
History of the study of human neuro-psychic states
Among mental phenomena, mental states have one of the main places.
The concept of "mental state" belongs to the fundamental, generic concepts in psychology, and therefore, as D. Levitov notes, it is extremely difficult to give its own definition through even more generalized concepts.
The concept "mental state" has a practical categorical nature and is one of the basic aspects of the content of psychological science. Possessing a certain independence (absence of rigid dependence on external conditions), mental states largely determine a person's activity. I.P. Pavlov has pointed out that it is not only the dynamics of situational characteristics that are important for the brain's activity state, but also the present condition of nervous processes in the brain.
The interest in mental states, in which a person found himself and which in many respects determined his behavior, appearance, and activity, appeared in antiquity.
In the 6th century B.C. Heraclitus noted the contradictory nature of the definition of "State" and its substantive interpretation. Heraclitus pointed out that the word "state" itself testifies to the constancy, stability of this mental phenomenon. However, at the same time, he noted the dynamic, procedural nature of the mental state and believed that "states of mind" could change from one quality to another.
Aristotle had the clearest notion of mental states. He believed that mental states were special states of the soul, identified them as an independent psychological category, and emphasized the connection between them and the characteristics of the corporeal substratum. Aristotle separated concepts of mental conditions and mental activity and admitted that mental conditions develop under the influence of external influences.
At the end of the first millennium of our era, the great scientist Avicenna pointed out that emotions are certain forms of "animal power" and emphasized their connection with bodily changes. In fact, he also had the idea of combining medicine with psychology, i.e., taking into account the state of the human soul in assessing painful bodily disorders.
During the late Middle Ages and especially during the Renaissance, new views on mental states emerged. Descartes already believed that mental states as phenomena were accompanied by changes in behavior, mimicry, and in the condition of a person's internal organs.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, attempts to classify mental states continued. Thus, Wundt proposed a dichotomous principle, on the basis of which each mental state was divided into two groups: tension-relaxation, excitement-quietness.
Darwin and James provided thorough descriptions of external manifestations of mental states. In particular, James believed that mental states, including states of consciousness, are the main subject of psychological science as a whole.
In the first half of the twentieth century, fear and anxiety were analyzed by MacDougall, Watson, Freud, Fromm, Sellier, Spencer, Spence and Taylor.
Most researchers agree that the problem of anxiety as a psychological problem proper was first raised and given special consideration in the works of Z. Freud.
He focused his attention on anxiety, which he viewed as a subjective experience accompanied by fear reactions. He defined anxiety as "some feeling," an unpleasant emotional state. In addition to trembling, disturbed breathing and the rest of the biological manifestations, Freud suggested that the state of anxiety consisted of feelings of tension, fear, nervousness. Freud also considered in detail the difference between "objective" and "neurotic" anxiety.
One of the first studies of the problem of "internal constancy" of the organism in a changing environment were the classical theories of Bernard, which later served as an impetus for further study of specific issues related to the genesis, phenomenology and objective characteristics of mental states, including states of mental tension, anxiety and fear. A significant contribution to the development of these issues was made by Russian researchers V. Bekhterev, B. Ananiev, P. Simonov, D. Levitov and others.
Modern concepts of human mental states
In the modern view, mental states represent the holistic characteristics of mental activity over a certain period of time. Changing, they accompany a person's life in his relations with people and society. Three general dimensions can be distinguished in any mental state: motivational and motivational, emotional and evaluative, and activation-energetic.
Different authors give different definitions of the concept of "mental state". Some of them, for example, Gems identifies the concept of "state" and "process", others reduce the concept of "mental state" to the concept of "state of consciousness", others in one way or another connect mental states with the characteristics of the emotional sphere. In the literature, there are definitions by K. Platonov, A. Lazursky, A. Smirnov, and others.
The most complete definition is that of D. Levitov, who believes that the mental state is an independent manifestation of the human psyche, always accompanied by external signs of a transient, dynamic nature, expressed most often in emotions, which colors the entire mental activity of a person and is connected with cognitive activity, the volitional sphere and the personality as a whole.
Human mental states are characterized by their integrity, mobility and relative stability, interrelation with mental processes and personality properties, individual originality and typicality, extreme diversity and polarity.
The integrity of mental states is manifested in the fact that they characterize at a certain period of time the entire mental activity as a whole, expressing a specific relationship of all components of the psyche.
The mobility of mental states lies in their variability, in the presence of stages of course (the beginning, certain dynamics, and the end).
Mental states possess relative stability, and their dynamics are less pronounced than those of mental processes (cognitive, volitional, emotional). At the same time, mental processes, states and properties of the personality are closely connected with each other. Mental states influence mental processes, being a background to their course. At the same time, they serve as a "building material" for the formation of personality qualities, first of all characterological. For example, a state of concentration mobilizes processes of attention, perception, memory, thinking, and if repeatedly repeated, they can become a quality of the personality.
Mental states are characterized by extreme diversity and polarity. The latter concept means that each mental state corresponds to an opposite state (confidence - uncertainty, activity - passivity, frustration - tolerance, etc.).
Human mental states can be classified on the following grounds:
- depending on the role of the personality and the situation in which mental states arise - personal and situational;
- depending on the dominant (leading) components (if explicitly present) - intellectual, volitional, emotional, etc;
- depending on the depth - states (more or less) deep or superficial;
- depending on the time of occurrence - short-term, prolonged, or prolonged;
- depending on the influence on the personality - positive or negative, stenic, life-enhancing, and asthenic;
- depending on the degree of awareness - more or less conscious states;
- depending on the causes that cause them;
- depending on the degree of adequacy of the objective situation that caused them.
Typical positive and negative mental states, common to most people in everyday life (happiness, grief, etc.) and in professional activity, can be distinguished. To the latter, it is possible to refer mental states of professional suitability, consciousness of the importance of one's profession, the state of joy from successful work, the state of dissatisfaction with work, etc.
The state of professional interest is characterized by: awareness of the importance of professional activity; desire to learn more about it and to act actively in its field; concentration of attention on a circle of objects related to this field, and at that the specified objects begin to occupy the dominant position in the consciousness of a specialist.
The mental state of readiness for professional activity as a whole and its individual elements in particular is important for the effectiveness of professional activity.
Along with positive (stenotic) states, negative (asthenic) mental states can also arise in a person in the process of his activity, communication. For example, indecisiveness as a mental condition can arise not only in the absence of a person's independence and self-confidence, but also in view of the novelty, uncertainty and confusion of a given life situation. Such states lead to a state of mental tension.
Thus, the structure of a mental state includes a certain modality of experience, specific changes in the course of mental processes (mental activity) as a whole, a reflection of features of personality and character, as well as subject activity and somatic state. One of types of mental tension is the state of anxiety.
Anxiety as a condition of nervous and psychological tension
The concept of "anxiety" and the reasons for its occurrence
Anxiety is a state of anxiety that occurs in a person in a situation that poses a certain mental or psychological threat to him. This condition is also often called anxiety.
According to a common definition, anxiety is defined as a feeling of unspecific, uncertain threats, accompanied by the expectation of adverse change.
The term "anxiety" is often used to refer to a broader range of experiences that arise regardless of the specific situation. The versatility and semantic ambiguity of the concepts of anxiety and uneasiness in psychological research is a consequence of their use in different meanings.
Anxiety is the experience of emotional malaise associated with a premonition of danger or failure. Any instability, disruption of the habitual course of events can lead to the development of anxiety.
Unlike fear, which is generated by concrete reasons and is connected mainly with a threat to the very existence of man as a living being, anxiety usually has an indefinite character and arises from a threat (often an imaginary one) to man as a person. Sometimes fear and anxiety are put on an equal footing. At the same time, it is believed that anxiety precedes fear, which arises when danger is already realized and concretized.
Psychology distinguishes between anxiety as an emotional state (situational anxiety) and as a stable trait (personal anxiety).
Situational anxiety is defined by Spielberger as an "emotional reaction," which is characterized by a somber foreboding, subjective feelings of tension, nervousness and anxiety and is accompanied by activation of the autonomic nervous system.
Similarly, Y. L. Khanin understands anxiety as an emotional state or reaction, which is characterized by the following signs:
- varying intensity (the magnitude of situational anxiety can fluctuate depending on a variety of factors);
- variability in time (emotional discomfort is associated with a particular situation);
- presence of unpleasant experiences of tension, concern, anxiety, apprehension;
- pronounced activation of the vegetative nervous system.
Situational anxiety is generated by objective conditions containing the probability of failure and misfortune. As a rule, as a rule, normal anxiety has a reason, i.e. a person knows why he or she is anxious: because of an impending examination, because of trouble at work. In these conditions, anxiety can play a positive role, as it promotes the concentration of energy to achieve the desired goal, mobilizing the reserves of the body and the person to overcome possible difficulties. That is, situational anxiety is adaptive in nature, if it does not exceed the optimal level. Indifference to difficulties and irresponsible attitude towards the goals set in the complete absence of situational anxiety reduces the effectiveness of activity and does not allow achieving the best results. However, increased situational anxiety, in which excitement and anxiety considerably exceeds the level of possible difficulties, also reduces performance.
Personal anxiety is understood as a stable individual characteristic that reflects the subject's predisposition to anxiety and implies the presence of a tendency to perceive a fairly wide "fan" of situations as threatening, responding to each of them with a certain reaction. As a predisposition, personal anxiety is activated by the perception of certain stimuli that a person views as dangerous to self-esteem and self-respect.
The magnitude of personal anxiety predicts the likelihood of future anxiety states. Highly anxious subjects will perceive stressful situations as more threatening and will experience more pronounced levels of situational anxiety.
In addition to this, Y.L. Khanin, referring to the works of Martens, divides personal anxiety into general and specific anxiety.
In the first case, personal anxiety has a character not associated with the specifics of the situation. This means that highly anxious subjects will experience high levels of situational anxiety in most situations.
In the second case, anxiety occurs only in certain situations and is associated with the peculiarities of the perception of specific stressors. Therefore, individuals with a high level of personal anxiety experience a state of anxiety in some situations and can feel quite calm in other situations.
A certain level of anxiety is a natural and obligatory feature of an active and active personality. Each person has his or her own optimal or desirable level of anxiety. This is so-called useful anxiety. A person's assessment of his or her state in this respect is an essential component of self-control and self-education
If suddenly the person or others notice that everything seems more or less normal, and he/she feels anxiety, or the reaction to ordinary events is excessive, or anxiety arises for such reasons, which previously the person would not have paid attention to, then situational anxiety has a maladaptive character.
Analysis of the literature allows us to identify external objective factors contributing to the increase in the level of anxiety associated with work, and internal, subjective - those individual characteristics of the professional's personality that affect the process of the growth of anxiety.
Objective factors of anxiety include.
1) Unfavorable social and psychological climate of the team, which is formed under the influence of a complex system of relationships and is expressed in a certain emotional state (emotional mood) of the team. Frequent conflicts, increased tension in the relationship with colleagues and management, lack of support and cohesion in the team can have a negative impact on individual psychological states of its members, to create difficult experiences, which perpetuate can be a factor contributing to the anxiety;
2) Overloading. There are people who work best in a constant state of stress, but for most people, a situation of severe temporary pressure is stressful. This situation may be due to poor labor organization (when organizational procedures take up the lion's share of working time), lack of personnel (when one person has to combine the duties of several employees), as well as the very nature of activity, in which periodic "rushes" occur (for example, in businessmen, policemen, doctors who have to deal with crisis situations). The reasons for overload may also be unrealistically high personal demands or requirements of superiors.
3) Low social status. For most people, work is the most meaningful part of life. And if society undervalues this work as unimportant and unworthy of high remuneration, it degrades human dignity. Workers who are underpaid experience stress as a result of their claims. They experience depression and a sense of hopelessness. This feeling is often exacerbated by the attitudes of supervisors who constantly monitor their subordinates, distrusting their integrity and competence. The feeling of unappreciation and petty control destroy in a person the desire for professional growth, makes him doubt his abilities.
4) Overtime and inconvenient working hours. The human organism, whose daily rhythms are determined by natural factors, is not adapted to work at night. Disruptions of the circadian rhythm (e.g. night shifts) cause psychological and physiological stress. In addition to the disruption of circadian rhythms, overtime hours entail additional inconveniences. A person has no time left to dispose of as he or she sees fit, since at any moment he or she may be called in to work overtime. The person is in a prolonged state of waiting anxiety.
5) Unnecessary rituals and procedures. Many employees complain about the abundance of paperwork. The processing of numerous documents often causes negative emotions for doctors, teachers, university professors and researchers, whose main activities are of a completely different "non-paper nature". Often irritation arises from too many meetings, discussions and business meetings, especially if they are poorly prepared. Participants in such meetings have the feeling that time is being wasted.
6) Uncertainty. Very few people feel confident in a situation of uncertainty. Uncertainty in the workplace can arise from frequent changes in institutional policies when employees do not know exactly what is going on and cannot plan their activities. The worst form of uncertainty is when a person does not know if he or she will be able to stay in the workplace. Managers who think their employees will perform better if the prospect of termination looms before them are sorely mistaken. This situation only leads to higher levels of employee anxiety.
7) Monotony. When the situation is too stable, this, too, can cause anxiety, manifesting itself in apathy, laziness. A man needs new experiences from time to time to keep the focus and creativity. For example, employees performing administrative duties often have a feeling of monotony. In the morning, they experience an almost panic state at the thought that all the events of the coming day can be predicted up to the minute. These events are not stressful or unpleasant in themselves, but their predictability reaches an extent that causes strong negative emotions.
8) Helplessness. Severe anxiety can arise not only from the necessity to make decisions in a difficult situation, but also in the opposite situation, when a person is aware of his or her inability to influence the events and has to accept someone else's decisions as inevitable.
Thus, situational or reactive anxiety as a state is characterized by subjective experiences, emotions: tension, anxiety, preoccupation, nervousness. This state arises as an emotional reaction to a stressful situation and can vary in intensity and dynamism over time. Situational anxiety is generated by objective conditions containing the probability of failure and disadvantage (in particular, in situations of assessment of a person's abilities and achievements).
Subjective factors influencing the emergence and manifestation of anxiety
What causes the emergence of evaluative anxiety as a character trait? What factors increase evaluative anxiety and its components (anxiety and emotionality)?
In more recent work, Spielberger and colleagues added to the understanding of appraisal anxiety as a situation-specific form of personality anxiety. They proposed that evaluative anxiety should be viewed as a dynamic process. Understanding anxiety as a process is a theory that focuses on the fundamental components of the anxiety process (stress, threat, state, and properties of anxiety). Since anxiety is a psychobiological entity, both physiological and phenomenological, subjectively assessed indicators (heart rate, body surface temperature, breathing parameters) must be included.
Concretization of the global term "anxiety" allows us to distinguish three aspects: its physiological, introspective, behavioral.
Those experiencing heightened anxiety try to use the safest ways of manifesting their anxiety and hostility; they are also disinclined to explore unknown and unfamiliar situations.
O.G. Melnichenko (1979) showed that such people are characterized by emotional unbalance (the C-factor of Cattell), timidity (the H-factor), insecurity (the Q-factor) and agitation, tension (frustration - factor QIV). They have a higher and less stable level of pretensions. Their biochemical parameters are characterized by a higher background level of lactate in the blood.
According to R.L. Astakhov (2000), anxiety is associated with schizotypy, submissiveness, preoccupation, fear.
All of these personality traits have a natural basis, which is served by the typological features of the manifestation of the properties of the nervous system. V.D. Nebylitsyn suggested that people with a weak nervous system are more prone to anxiety than those with a strong nervous system. This has been confirmed by a number of studies. It was found that people with a high degree of anxiety are more likely to have a weak nervous system, and consequently high activation at rest, which is primarily due to the excitatory influence on the cerebral cortex. Yu.A. Katygin and his co-authors found that people with high anxiety are more often characterized by inertia of nervous processes and the predominance of inhibition.
Thus, people with low neuroticism, more than people with high neuroticism, are characterized by a strong nervous system, the mobility of nervous processes and the predominance of excitation on an "external" balance. According to the results of E. P. Ilyin, the achievement motive is stronger in persons with high levels of anxiety.
Scientists have attempted to reveal the role of inheritability of anxiety as a personality trait. R. Cattell and I. Scheyer have shown that the influence of environment is much stronger, and that the H factor alone, which is part of anxiety, is significantly influenced by heredity. However, there is other evidence of the influence of the genetic factor in the manifestation of anxiety. Left-handed men and women showed the greatest neuroticism and anxiety, which can be explained by the subjects' living conditions in the right-handed world.
Thus, as subjective factors, the researchers identify:
- high level of neuroticism as an indicator of emotional instability of the individual, emotional lability, unbalanced neuropsychological processes, manifested in increased excitability, reactivity and high responsiveness, low threshold of experiencing distress and the predominance of negatively colored emotional states.
- low level of formation of the individual system of conscious self-regulation of emotions and behavior. Some authors identify as subjective factors and the presence of discrepancies in the value sphere, which is relevant in today's situation.
Manifestations of anxiety can be somatic and behavioral. Somatic manifestations refer to changes in the internal organs and body systems: palpitations are accelerated, uneven breathing, limbs tremble, stiffness of movements. Blood pressure may rise, and stomach disorders may occur.
At the behavioral level, manifestations of increased anxiety are even more varied and unforeseen. They can fluctuate from complete apathy and lack of initiative to demonstrative aggression. It often occurs with low self-esteem. Underestimation of self-esteem in the majority of cases is characteristic of people with personality anxiety, stuck-up and pedantic types of character accentuation. As a result, there is a lowered background of mood and an inferiority complex. Persistent and excessively low self-esteem entails excessive dependence on others, lack of independence and a distorted perception of others.
Unconsciously masking his anxiety, a person provokes a negative attitude toward him that complicates an already difficult internal state.
One of the more frequent manifestations of anxiety is apathy and lethargy. The conflict between contradictory aspirations is resolved by giving up any aspirations. Apathy is often a consequence of the failure of other mechanisms to overcome anxiety. The mask of apathy is even more deceptive than the mask of aggression. Demonstrative inertness, absence of lively emotional reactions interfere with the recognition of anxiety and the internal contradictions that led to the development of the state of anxiety.
The influence of anxiety on performance
Recently, anxiety has also been studied as a process, in particular, in the works of C. Spielberger, F.E. Vasilyuk, F.B. Berezin, V.M. Astapov.
The experimental study of the influence of anxiety on the effectiveness of activity yields unequivocal results. The data indicate that anxiety promotes successful activity in relatively simple situations, and hinders in difficult situations.
Anxiety as a danger signal draws attention to possible difficulties, allows to mobilize forces and thereby achieve the best results. Therefore, the optimal level of anxiety is seen as necessary for effective adaptation to reality (adaptive reality). The complete absence of anxiety impedes normal adaptation and interferes with productive activity. An excessively high level of anxiety is seen as a maladaptive response, manifesting itself in a general disorganization of behavior and activity.
As Cattell and I. Scheyer have shown, a high level of anxiety reduces the success of professional activity. Increased personal anxiety negatively affects musicians, athletes and other activities. In addition, such people are less resistant to monotonous work than individuals with low anxiety. However, low anxiety can also cause poor performance. It all seems to depend on the type of work in which a person is engaged.
Anxiety also affects the style of activity. N.A. Bukseev (1987) has shown that high levels of anxiety are more frequently found in people with a soft (liberal) style of activity than in those who are rigid (autocratic). It has been observed that people with high personal anxiety have a lower self-esteem and authoritarian style of basic activity (there were studies of teachers), avoid social contacts.
In contrast, people with low neuroticism are self-confident and seek to actively communicate with people. According to E.P. Ilyin, there is reason to believe that anxiety plays a role in the natural selection for certain activities, in particular for certain kinds of grades. For example, there are no athletes with high anxiety in the parachuting variety, and both among masters and novices.
Empirical studies of anxiety levels
Most of the known methods of measuring anxiety measure either only personality or state anxiety, or more specific reactions. The only technique that allows differentiated measurement of anxiety as both a personality trait and a state is the method proposed by C.D. Spielberg. In Russian, his scale was adapted by Y.L. Khanin.
In this work, we used Ch. Spielberger's technique adapted by Khanin. The technique consists of two questionnaires: the Situational Anxiety Scale (SA) and the Personal Anxiety Scale (PAS).
The Situational Anxiety Scale consists of 20 questions to which the respondent must answer: No, I don't think so, I guess so, True, Quite true.
The Personal Anxiety Scale also includes 20 questions to which the test taker must answer: Never, Almost Never, Often, Almost Always.
The situational and personality anxiety scores are determined by using a key.
In order to study the level of personal and situational anxiety and to identify the relationship between the level of anxiety and the success of professional activity we formed a group of 10 people by free sampling of people of different ages from 19 to 50 years. 60% of the participants were women and 40% were men.
The group consisted of people of different professions, both mental and physical work: students, teachers, managers, construction workers, drivers, etc.
Each participant was instructed on how to use the questionnaires before the survey was administered.
After testing, each research participant was asked how successful he/she considered himself/herself to be in professional activities. All test results were systematized in a table.
|Members||Gender||Age||Profession||Level of personal anxiety||Level of situational anxiety||Successful in professional activities||Note|
|1.||Woman||41||Teacher||42 points||45 points||+|
|2.||Woman||19||Student||32 points||36 points||+|
|3.||Man||21||Student||29 points||35 points||+|
|4.||Man||38||Builder||25 points||28 points||+|
|5.||Woman||50||Seller||55 points||60 points||-|
|6.||Man||47||Driver||40 points||42 points||+|
|7.||Woman||31||Manager||48 points||50 points||-||Contacting a psychologist|
|8.||Woman||27||Educator||42 points||43 points||-|
|9.||Man||26||Manager||20 points||20 points||+|
|10.||Woman||30||Secretary||50 points||54 points||-||Contacting a psychologist|
Results of the research
Analysis of the table showed that the level of personal anxiety among the subjects was distributed as follows:
- low - 3 people (30%);
- average - 4 people (40%);
- high - 3 persons (30%).
The level of reactive (situational) anxiety in 90% of cases was slightly higher than the level of personal anxiety and was distributed as follows:
- low - 2 persons (20%);
- average - 5 people (50%);
- high - 3 persons (30%).
Thus, all individuals with a high level of personal anxiety also gave a high percentage of reactive anxiety.
All subjects with high or close to high (42-43 points) levels of anxiety, both personal and reactive - 4 persons, were dissatisfied with their professional state. They often experience discomfort at work, internal conflict; they experience increased fatigue and irritability; and they have low self-esteem. Two of the subjects with high levels of anxiety even sought help from a psychologist.
From the data reflected in the table we can also trace the relationship of mental and physical work and the level of anxiety and, accordingly, the level of professional success.
Anxiety, which affects the successful activity, is clearly seen in workers of mental labor, compared to workers of physical labor, which is probably due to the predominant influence of the state of anxiety on the higher nervous system of the body. On the other hand, there can also be an "inverse relationship" between the way of work and self-reflexivity, which in anxious individuals reduces the level of self-esteem.
No clear connection between the level of anxiety and age was revealed, but women prevailed among the subjects with a high level of anxiety, which is probably associated with a more pronounced emotionality of women and emotional lability and tendency to anxiety. In addition, women engaged in intellectual work showed a higher motivation for success (83.6%) than men (50%).
The lowest level of anxiety was shown by young men (up to 25 years old).
Thus, using the Spielberger technique, we obtained data that subjects with a high level of personal and situational anxiety experience greater dissatisfaction with their professional activity than subjects with a low level of anxiety. A higher level of anxiety is characteristic of people engaged in intellectual activities or people engaged in activities that require constant tension and attention. In our case, these are salespeople, secretaries, and teachers, which confirms the hypothesis we put forward: the level of anxiety affects satisfaction with professional activity.
Anxiety as a state of neuropsychological tension is a tendency of an individual to experience anxiety and largely determines his behavior. A certain level of anxiety is a natural and obligatory feature of an individual's activity. Each person has his or her own optimal or desirable level of anxiety - so-called useful anxiety.
Psychology distinguishes between anxiety as an emotional state (situational anxiety) and as a stable trait (personal anxiety). In general, anxiety is a subjective manifestation of disadvantage of the individual.
The main factors influencing the level of anxiety are internal individual-psychological and external socio-psychological factors. Internal factors include a high level of neuroticism and personality anxiety, mismatch in the motivational sphere. External factors include deficiencies in the organizational structure and a negative psychological climate in the team.
The conducted empirical research confirms our hypothesis: the level of anxiety affects the satisfaction with professional activity.